1. HLACC - Time "How Long"
English (e.g.) FOR five hours
FOR ten years
FOR many days
FOR one night
Latin just uses the ACCUSATIVE case (without a preposition):
N.B. Cardinal numbers: only UNUS, DUO, TRES change their endings.
2. WABL - Time "When" (or "Within..")
English (e.g.) IN the tenth year
ON the third day
AT the eighth hour
(With)IN a few days
Latin just uses the ABLATIVE case (without a preposition):
N.B. Ordinal numbers ALL change their endings: usually to '-O' or '-A'.
Possibly the hardest thing about translating these phrases is actually spotting them in the first place! There are certain 'give-aways' to watch out for:
NUMBERS (both kinds) are often involved
NOUNS to do with TIME (annus, dies, hora, nox)
….and when you get both together it is very likely to be an example of
HLACC or WABL.
When you do spot them, the crucial thing is to notice the CASE of the words:
If they are ACC, it is 'How Long', and you must use the English word -
If they are ABL, it is 'When/Within', and you have the choice of -
"IN", "ON" or "AT".
e.g. ULIXES MULTOS ANNOS PER MARE ERRABAT.
Odysseus wandered over the sea FOR many years.
GRAECI TROIAM DECIMO ANNO BELLI CEPERUNT.
The Greeks captured Troy IN the tenth year of the war.
MOTION and Position
Certain words in Latin follow slightly different patterns from the
usual way of expressing these ideas. This occurs in particular
with NAMES of TOWNS and a couple of other individual words:
especially DOMUS (which here uses 2nd decl endings),and also the
word RUS, RURIS (3,n) which is technically no longer needed
for GCSE - but is worth knowing anyway, as the root of the
English word 'rural'.
Usual Latin: AD or IN + ACC case:
e.g. AD URBEM - to(wards) the city
IN AGROS - into the fields
Irregulars: These also use the ACC, but without any prepositions:
e.g. ROMAM - to Rome
POMPEIOS - to Pompeii (2nd decl plur)
DOMUM - home(wards)
RUS - to the country
2. 'AWAY FROM':
Usual Latin: E(X) or A(B) + ABL case:
e.g. EX OPPIDO - out of the town
A MONTIBUS - away from the mountains
Irregulars: These also use the ABL, but without any prepositions:
e.g. TROIA (abl ending) - from Troy
ATHENIS (abl pl of 'Athenae') - from Athens
DOMO - from home
Position ("IN" or "AT")
Usual Latin: IN + ABL case:
e.g. IN FORO - in the market-place
Irregulars: These use the so-called "LOCATIVE" case:
With words whose names are1st or 2nd decl. singular, the ending is the he
same as the GEN SING
With words whose names are3rd decl, OR plural, the ending is the
same as theABLcase.
e.g. ROMAE - IN or AT Rome
LONDINII - IN London ('Londinium' is 2nd n.)
DOMI - AT home
BUT: RURE/RURI - IN the country
KARTHAGINE - IN Carthage (a 3rd decl name)
POMPEIIS - IN Pompeii (plural)
NOTICE THAT 3rd decl or plural names will have the same endings
for 'MOTION - AWAY FROM' as for 'POSITION'...! The VERB
MEANING in the sentence will usually make it clear which is which:
e.g. ATHENIS DISCESSIMUS - We went awayFROM Athens
ATHENIS MANEMUS - We are staying IN Athens
There are some regular ways of forming adverbs from adjectives (as English often adds "--LY"). It usually depends on which declension endings the adjective uses (and in some cases its stem).
A) 1st/2nd decl. adjectives
The regular way of formation (including '-ER' types) is to take the STEM
and add "—E".
e.g. IRATUS - IRATE (angrily)
MISER - MISERE (miserably)
PULCHER - PULCHRE (beautifully)
Some common irregulars:
PRIMUS - PRIMO or PRIMUM (firstly, at first)
TUTUS - TUTO (safely)
Beware (as usual) of the Famous Five (see below)!
B) 3rd declension adjectives
The regular formation is to takethe STEM and add "—ITER"
e.g. FORTIS - FORTITER (bravely)
CELER - CELERITER (quickly)
FELIX - FELICITER (luckily - also the Latin for 'Good luck!')
FACILIS - FACILE (easily)
AUDAX - AUDACTER (boldly)
Adj's in -NS: change -NS to -NTER: e.g. SAPIENTER (wisely)
COMPARATIVE & SUPERLATIVE
This is reasonably straightforward. Firstly take the Comparative or Superlative of the original adjective. Then…
For COMPARATIVE: change -IOR to -IUS (more ------ly)
For SUPERLATIVE: follow the normal way of changing a 1st/2nd decl. adjective into an adverb, i.e. change -US to -E (very -----ly).
ADJECTIVE ADVERB COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
STULTUS STULTE STULTIUS STULTISSIME
(foolish) (foolishly) (more foolishly) (very foolishly)
AUDAX AUDACTER AUDACIUS AUDACISSIME
GRAVIS GRAVITER GRAVIUS GRAVISSIME
DILIGENS DILIGENTER DILIGENTIUS DILIGENTISSIME
CELER CELERITER CELERIUS CELERRIME
FACILIS FACILE FACILIUS FACILLIME
C) The FAMOUS FIVE
It will come as no surprise that these tend to form their adverbs irregularly! Some of their Comparative/Superlatives are however in fact regular…
Irregularities are printed below in RED.
ADJECTIVE ADVERB COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
BONUS BENE MELIUS OPTIME
MALUS MALE PEIUS PESSIME
MAGNUS MAGNOPERE MAGIS MAXIME
PARVUS PAULLUM MINUS MINIME
MULTUS MULTUM PLUS PLURIMUM
RELATIVE PRONOUN (QUI QUAE QUOD)
QUIBUS or QUIS (all genders)
QUIBUS or QUIS (all genders)
Chart of English Meanings:
(before an English verb)
(before anything else)
WHOSE, OF WHOM
WHOSE, OF WHICH
BY (etc.) WHOM
BY (etc.) WHICH
It often helps to imagine that the QUI clause is in BRACKETS inside the main part of the sentence. This prevents you splitting the sentence into clauses incorrectly.
Place these brackets BEFORE the part of "QUI" (or a preposition followed by 'qui'),and AFTER the first indicative verb that follows:
e.g. IUVENIS (CUI PECUNIAM DEDI) E FORO RUIT
Then translate the CASE of "QUI" carefully by the meanings chart above: it will refer to the NOUN IN FRONT OF IT (its "ANTECEDENT"). This will show you whether it is a PERSON or a THING!
e.g. The YOUNG MAN (TO WHOM (dat) I gave the money) rushed out of the forum.
MONTES (PER QUOS ITER FACIEBAT) ERANT ALTISSIMI
THE MOUNTAINS (THROUGH WHICH he was travelling) were very high
MILITES FEMINAS (QUAE IN VIA CLAMABANT) AUDIVERUNT
The soldiers heard THE WOMEN (WHO were shouting in the street)
You will obviously then want to remove the brackets again when you write the sentence properly.
SOME FOR YOU TO TRY!
Run your cursor over the 'Answer' lines to see if you are right: the first line shows the sentence with the correct words bracketed.
1. PUERI SENEM QUI IN FORO ERRABAT AD VILLAM DUXERUNT
With brackets: PUERI SENEM (QUI IN FORO ERRABAT) AD VILLAM DUXERUNT
Answer: The boys took the old man who was wandering in the forum to his villa
2. SERVE, FER GLADIUM QUO HUNC LEONEM NECARE POTERO!
With brackets: SERVE, FER GLADIUM (QUO HUNC LEONEM NECARE POTERO)!
Answer: Slave, bring a sword with which I'll be able to kill this lion!
3. VIR CUIUS FILIAM HERI VIDISTI EST SENATOR CLARUS
With brackets: VIR (CUIUS FILIAM HERI VIDISTI) EST SENATOR CLARUS
Answer: The man whose daughter you saw yesterday is a famous senator
4. ULIXES DONA INTER QUAE GLADIUS ERAT MULIERIBUS OSTENDIT
With brackets: ULIXES DONA ( INTER QUAE GLADIUS ERAT) MULIERIBUS OSTENDIT
Answer: Odysseus showed the women some gifts, amongst which was a sword